In order to fully understand geopolitics and the roles that violence play multiple articles must be read. First off violence and geopolitics goes together. Since in order to have control over an individual within the state their has to be violence and a war going on. Such as in the lecture it states, “Marji’s witness both the revolution and the internal conflict between the secular communists (to which she is connected through her family) and the religious fundamentalists.” This events shaped Marji mind which changes the perception of her country. Changing her perception allows the state to obtain some sort of power over the individual. Also in Iran, coming to age women are expected to get marry. According to the lecture “For young girls, the journey has traditionally been an internal journey, one that ends happily in marriage.” Which shows that women tend to be seen as someone property instead of having equal rights. Also coming to age tends to different between a women and a man. In the lecture it states, “Men are not supposed to shave their faces while women have to be fully covered, from head to toe, and in one very funny scene in the art.” Which shows how their is gender inequality when it comes to coming of age. After all this ideas are acceptable by multiple researchers. For example in the article”After The Violence” Zeitzoff states, “Exposure to political violence fundamentally changes behavior and preferences. It makes people more willing to accept risks. Diverse findings from Nepal, Israel, and Burundi all connect exposure to political violence to increases in generosity.” Which shows that war and violence affects people decisions and lets states have some sort of control over individuals.
Surveillance is the act of watching someone. When people know that they are being watch they tend to alter their behavior. According to the lecture “We change our behavior based on who is watching us. For example if your parents or spouse are watching you, you behave differently than if your friends are watching.” Which makes surveillance a source of power. Since the person doing the surveillance obtains the sense of power over the person. According to the lecture “When we look, we are in charge. When we are looked at, we are not in charge.” Surveillance allows institutions and major companies to have social control over individuals. For example in the article “Foucault’s Panopticon” Foucault stated, ” That power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible: the inmate will constantly have before his eyes the tall outline of the central tower from which he is spied upon. Unverifiable: the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at any moment; but he must be sure that he may always be so.” So the subject should know they are being watch but not know when he’s being watch. Since the person doing the surveillance can lose his power if the individual becomes comfortable. While this ideas are brought up by Foucault their are other researchers who can agree with him. According to the article “Surveillance, Power, and Everyday Life” Lyon stated, “ICTs are utilized to increase the power, reach and capacity of surveillance systems. The specific kind of surveillance discussed here is perhaps the fastest growing and almost certainly the most controversial, namely the processing of personal data for the purposes of care or control, to influence or manage persons and populations.” Which shows how power is use on daily basis.
In order to fully understand the meaning of masculinity multiple articles must be read.First off men in western culture face multiple challenges when it comes to showing their masculinity. Men are so post to play “manly” sports and act tough. According to the lecture traits that men should show are the following ” aggression, physical strength, power,breadwinner, control/ no emotion, competition, action, and dominance.” If men do not display this traits then their masculinity starts to be question by society. Which can not happen since masculinity is based on power and dominance. Such as the film “Full Metal Jacket” the guns are a symbolism of a penis which subconsciously is representing power. Also in the film Private Pyle was struggling to become a what society calls a “real man”so he decided to kill his sergeant since he was getting verbally attacked by him. In the film the sergeant was obtaining power by putting fear instead of obtaining it by respect. Also in the article “The Prince” Machiavelli stated, “Nevertheless a prince ought to inspire fear in such a way that, if he does not win love, he avoids hatred; because he can endure very well being feared whilst he is not hated, which always be as long as he abstains from the property of his citizens and subjects and from their women.”Which is saying that obtaining power only by fear is wrong but instead it should be obtain by love and some sort of fear. Also their are other researcher that can agree with this ideas about masculinity in the western culture. Such as in the article “Manning up: Men May overcompensate when their masculinity is threatened” Bach stated, “men have long faced pressure to live up to ideals of masculinity.Societal norms dictating that men should be masculine are powerful. And new University of Washington research finds that men who believe they fall short of those ideals might be prompted to reassert their masculinity in small but significant ways.” When their masculinity is question men tend to do things in order to regain power.While Bash talks about the importance of masculinity Farid believes that power should be obtain by respect instead of fear. According to the article “Respect” Farid stated, “Thus, for a peacebuilder, it is important to look at respect from different angles. First is the importance of treating parties to a conflict with civility and honor. Once people are accorded respect, they are more willing to make compromises which are long term and sustainable, rather than those that are made under duress.” So people tend to obey better when they feel respected and appreciated.
In order to fully understand how how religion plays a major role in peoples decisions multiple article must be read. Religious institutions tend to have the best interest for people when it comes to making a decision but they have stay within their religious beliefs. According to the lecture “In the Catholic tradition, St Antoninus in the 15th century approved of early abortions to save the life of the women. The current and former Popes have asserted just the opposite, that abortions is a sin.” Religious institutions tend to alter their beliefs in order to adapt to the situation. Also in the chapter “More people, Less Earth from Scared Choices” MacGuire states, “It’s just that foreign aid and national governments do not give them the contraceptive help they need, often due to conservative religious influences on the government.” Which shows how religion tends to become very influential in the decisions that people make. In chapter 2 of “Why people Make Too many Babies” it states, “With our species, the need is met by ethics and by that powerful cultural motivator that we call religion.” So religion plays a major role when it comes on the women’s decision on how much kids they will have. While MacGuire states that religion affects people lives daily basis and oppresses women their are multiple researchers that agree with his theory. Such as in the article “Life Decisions: Articles of Faith” Burrows stated, “The trio also found that among Christians, religious identity is much more influential than the prescriptions of a particular denomination. Catholics, for example, are just as likely to be influenced by religious tenets in choosing where to live or work, as are equally devout black or evangelical Protestants.” Which shows that Burrow believed that religion affected people decisions. While Burrow agreed that religion affected people decisions Ethlia mostly agreed the religion oppresses women. For example, in the article “How religion oppresses women” Ethelia stated, “However, Christianity particularly has its biblical teachings which legitimise male domination. The Old Testament is patriarchal as men were in control.In the Ten Commandments the wife is listed as part of man’s property as portrayed in Exodus 20:17 which states that ‘you shall not covet your neighbour’s wife, or his manservant, or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour’s. This commandment clearly states that the wife is a possession and therefore, the man assumes a dominant role and the woman becomes docile proving that religion oppresses her.” Ethel shows how religion tend to oppress women and take a patriarchal model.
In order to thoroughly understand environmental racism and how development in society have impacted women lives in third world countries multiple articles must be read. First off in the article “Race Best Predicts Whether You Live Near Pollution” Covert states, “Communities that were located near multiple commercial hazardous-waste facilities or a landfill had three times the amount of minority residents as communities that were far away from such dump sites.” Covert believed that minorities are more likely to live in a community that contains high levels of waist. Also in the visual it states “56% of the population near toxic waste sites are people of color and have 38% higher nitrogen dioxide exposure.” Which is very similar to the statement that Covert made about minorities are more likely to live in polluted communities. While development in society has benefit many people it has only brought negativity to the lives of women. Such as in the article “Development, Ecology, and Women” Shiva states, “women’s relative access to economic resources, incomes and employment has worsened, their burden of work has increased, and their relative and even absolute health, nutritional and educational status has declined.” While Covert defines environmental racism and Shivas explains how women lives have been affected their are other researchers that tend to agree with their believes. For example Skelton and Miller agree with Covert that color of people tend to live in polluted neighborhoods. Such as in the article “The Environmental Justice Movement” Skelton and Miller stated, “Championed primarily by African-Americans, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders and Native Americans, the environmental justice movement addresses a statistical fact: people who live, work and play in America’s most polluted environments are commonly people of color and the poor.” Minorities and people that belong in the lower class tend to face environmental racism. While Cohen shares similar views as Shivas about women struggles in third world countries. Such as in the article “The Condition of Women in Developing and Developed Countries” Cohen stated, “Access to land is crucial in many African countries where subsistence farming is the main source of livelihood. In such countries, including Kenya, Liberia, Rwanda, Ghana, Tanzania, and Zambia, women usually lose their land when they are widowed because their entitlement to the land is founded on their marriage.” Which shows the struggles that women face in third wold countries since the land they have can be only source toward their survival.
In order to fully answer the questions are we responsible as a society and are communities something fictional, multiple articles must be read. Moving on to address the first question. Well when we move into a community we tend to give up some kind of independence in order to benefit the whole community. For example in the lecture Rousseau stated, “Individuals form an association based on general will, an individual places himself under the general will, becoming an indivisible part of the whole, contract is only valid as long as the association continues to reflect the general will of the individual members of the group.” Rousseau is stating that people will only help each other if it benefits the whole group. Moving on to the second question. Are community’s fictional or autonomous individuals the fiction? Well in the lecture it states, “Allen describes a system in which individual identity is secondary from the start, and tribal identity is how you know who you are, and is what governs all decisions making.” Allen is trying to say people’s independence comes second when it comes doing things as a community. So in conclusion individuality is fictional. While Allen believed that we weren’t independent and Rousseau believed that we are responsible as a society well their other researchers that agree with their ideas. For example in the article “Society and Individual Responsibility” Bhatla stated, “Because society values its existence as a whole over the existence of individuals. Individuals are valued only so far as how they can contribute to the creation and maintenance of a society, and beyond that, all their individual needs must be satisfied on their own.” Bhatla idea about society being responsible as whole is very similar as Rousseau idea about individuals being responsible as a society. On the other hand in the article “We All Think Were Individual. Here’s Why That’s Not True, And Why The Lie Is Told” Rosemont stated, “But the idea of an individual self is almost certainly a fiction, and has become a pernicious one, and collectivism is not the only alternative to it.” So individuality is created instead being a real thing.
Defining the meaning of family and the structure of a family can vary from family to family. Engles believed that wealth caused the structure of family to enter into a patriarchal system. According to the lecture “ Family structures and juridical frameworks that define those structures were directed and influenced by the development of private property. While Folbre believed that the definition of family could vary according to whom it applies. According to the lecture “ She also makes clear that the family is at its heart an economic unit sharing resources.” While Folbre and Engles believed the meaning of family fell within their theory there are other writers that have similar and different ideas on how to define family. Michelle Blessing believes are very similar to Folbre theory on family. Blessing believed that the definition of family could change from person to person. According to the article “Meaning of Family” Blessing stated, “Families differ in terms of economic, cultural, social, and many other facets, but what every family has in common is that the people who call it a family are making clear that those people are important in some way to the person calling them his family.” While Arvonne Fraser ideas are very similar to the one of Engles. Yet Fraser explains that families are changing rapidly within the workforce causing women to become more dominant in their household. According to the article “The Changing American Family” Fraser states, “During the last 25 years women’s employment has increased by 30% or more in every age category up to age 55 while men’s employment has declined in every age group over age 25. This trend represents a profound shift in lifestyles and contradicts long-held cultural assumptions.” The twenty first century has showed a change in roles within in our society.