Fourth Installment


In order to thoroughly understand environmental racism and how development in society have impacted women lives in third world countries multiple articles must be read. First off in the article “Race Best Predicts Whether You Live Near Pollution” Covert states, “Communities that were located near multiple commercial hazardous-waste facilities or a landfill had three times the amount of minority residents as communities that were far away from such dump sites.” Covert believed that minorities are more likely to live in a community that contains high levels of waist.  Also in the visual it states “56% of the population near toxic waste sites are people of color and have 38% higher nitrogen dioxide exposure.” Which is very similar to the statement that Covert made about minorities are more likely to live in polluted communities. While development in society has benefit many people it has only brought negativity to the lives of women. Such as in the article “Development, Ecology, and Women” Shiva states, “women’s relative access to economic resources, incomes and employment has worsened, their burden of work has increased, and their relative and even absolute health, nutritional and educational status has declined.” While Covert defines environmental racism and Shivas explains how women lives have been affected their are other researchers that tend to agree with their believes. For example Skelton and Miller agree with Covert that color of people tend to live in polluted neighborhoods. Such as in the article “The Environmental Justice Movement” Skelton and Miller stated, “Championed primarily by African-Americans, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders and Native Americans, the environmental justice movement addresses a statistical fact: people who live, work and play in America’s most polluted environments are commonly people of color and the poor.” Minorities and people that belong in the lower class tend to face environmental racism. While Cohen shares similar views as Shivas about women struggles in third world countries. Such as in the article “The Condition of Women in Developing and Developed Countries” Cohen stated, “Access to land is crucial in many African countries where subsistence farming is the main source of livelihood. In such countries, including Kenya, Liberia, Rwanda, Ghana, Tanzania, and Zambia, women usually lose their land when they are widowed because their entitlement to the land is founded on their marriage.” Which shows the struggles that women face in third wold countries since the land they have can be only source toward their survival.




Cohen, M. F. (2006). The Condition of Women in Developing and Developed Countries.              Retrieved May 10, 2016, from
Skelton, R., & Miller, V. (2016, March 17). The Environmental Justice Movement. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from

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